It's a small crack or tear in the skin of the anal canal, which is the opening through which stool passes out of the body.

What is an Anal Fissure?

An anal fissure is a small tear or crack in the skin of the anal canal, which is the opening through which stool is expelled from the body. This condition is quite common and can cause pain, discomfort, and sometimes bleeding during or after bowel movements. Typically, these Anal fissures are located in the posterior midline of the anal canal. The most common causes of an anal fissure include:

  1. Chronic constipation: Straining during bowel movements can damage the delicate skin in the anal area and lead to the development of a fissure.

  2. Chronic diarrhea: The constant irritation caused by liquid stools can contribute to the development of fissures.

  3. Birth: Some women may develop anal fissures after childbirth due to the pressure exerted during the labor process.

Procedure of anal fissure surgery.

Surgery to treat an anal fissure is known as anal sphincteroplasty or lateral internal sphincterotomy. It is a relatively simple surgical procedure performed to alleviate pain and promote the healing of the fissure. The procedure involves:

  1. Anesthesia: Before starting the surgery, general or regional anesthesia will be administered to the patient to ensure they do not feel any pain during the procedure.

  2. Access to the area: The surgeon will access the anal area through the anal canal. No external incisions are made, as the entire procedure is performed via the rectal route.

  3. Incision of the anal sphincter: Once the anal canal is accessed, the surgeon will make a small incision in the internal anal sphincter, which is one of the muscles surrounding the anus.

  4. Healing: The incision in the internal anal sphincter allows the muscle to relax and reduces pressure on the fissure, facilitating the healing of the anal fissure.

  5. Closing the incision: After completing the procedure, the incision in the sphincter is closed with sutures.

  6. Recovery: After surgery, the patient will be moved to a recovery room where they will be monitored until they recover from the anesthesia.

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